My novels, The Informer and Codename Panzer, are set in Copenhagen during the ending of World War II. A perfect background for gloomy crime noirs, I think. If you know nothing or very little of this part of Danish history, you can read more her.
May 31, 1939, with World War II lurking in the future, Denmark and neighboring Nazi-Germany sign a nonaggression pact. Being neutral, Denmark managed to stay out of harm’s way as World War I ravaged Europe. No need for policy change in 1939. Denmark is a tiny Kingdom just north of Germany with no military significance. The triumphant days of the Vikings long gone.
Early morning April 9, 1940, Nazi-Germany broke the nonaggression pact and invaded the small neighboring country of Denmark. Nazi-Germany invaded Denmark to get access to Norway where they planned to place submarine bases. Nazi-Germany claimed invasion of Denmark was to protect the tiny neighbor against aggressions from England and France. After only two hours of intense resistance Denmark surrendered to Nazi-Germany. The supremacy unquestionable, resistance futile. 16 Danes died during the Nazi-invasion, 20 wounded. The Germans lost 203 men; 75 wounded. The German invasion of Denmark was so swift many Danes slept through it. Going to sleep in a free country to awake in an occupied one.
The Nazi occupation of Denmark was unlike anywhere else. The Danish Government continued, still controlling the domestic policy. The Danish police continued under the Nazi occupation, however now its duties included the arrest of all German emigrants. After the German invasion Denmark cut all Allied relations – stopping all exports. Now Denmark would supply The Third Reich. The Nazi occupation was good business. Denmark sold agricultural products, industrial products – and even weapons to the Nazis.
The first year of the occupation Denmark was a quite safe place to be—even for the Danish Jews. The German soldiers nicknamed Denmark ‘The Whipped Cream Frontier’. Of course, it was now illegal to print or act in a way that could disturb the relations between Denmark and Nazi-Germany.
However, the gift of youth is to rebel and it was the youth in Denmark that started the resistance during World War II. The youth was infuriated by the lack of resistance from adult Danes. It seemed to them Denmark was acting like a German ally. The first Sabotage Groups in Denmark were teenagers destroying minor German properties or writing anti-Nazi slogans on city walls.
June 1941, Nazi-Germany attacked the Soviet Union—as a result, the Danish Communist Party was banned. The Danish police was ordered to arrest 66 named Communists by the Nazis. They arrested more than 300. Even members of the Parliament. The Danish Communist Party joined the resistance, forming one of the fiercest Sabotage Groups called BOPA in 1942.
The Official Denmark was against the sabotage and encouraged the public to report the resistance to the police. The Official Denmark encouraged Danes to join ‘Frikorps Danmark’ to fight on the Eastern Frontier on German side.
In June 1942, C. F. von Schalburg, leader of ‘Frikorps Danmark’ fell on the Eastern Frontier, instantly becoming a Nazi hero.
Summer 1943, the resistance, now getting weapons from England, launched a wave of sabotage against railroads and factories.
August 1943, after days of public protests and riots in 17 Danish cities, Danish Government resigns, and the first Danish saboteur is executed by the Germans.
September 1943, the Gestapo comes to Denmark to fight the resistance. Establishing HQ in the Dagmar House in Central Copenhagen. The Schalburg Corps—a Danish Nazi corps—formed to fight the resistance by any means.
October 1943, the Danish Jews flee with the help of the resistance to safety in neighboring, neutral Sweden, while the first Danes are deported to the German Concentration Camps. Danish resistance answers to German executions by killing informers and known Nazis.
January 1944, The Schalburg Corps of Danish Nazis begins reign of counter-sabotage and retaliation killings. The Schalburg Corps kill at least one Dane (most often by random) for every informer—Nazi or German—killed by the resistance. The famous Danish writer, Kaj Munk, among first victims of the Nazi retaliation killings. The Gestapo moves its HQ to the infamous Shell House in central Copenhagen.
June 6, 1944, D-day, the Allied attack and landing in Normandy.
June 22, 1944, sabotage group BOPA hits major weapon factory in Copenhagen making the Nazis go berserk. The whole city was punished with a harsh curfew. Tivoli and other places bombed by the Schalburg Corps. Several saboteurs executed.
June 25, 1944, strikes and public riots in most of Copenhagen. The Germans answer with brute force, killing Danes at random. As the riots continue the following days, the Germans move troops to Copenhagen, shutting off power, water and city gas.
July 3, 1944, unable to stop the riots even after killing 60 Danes and negotiating with Copenhagen Politicians, the Germans give in. Two days later, the riots in Copenhagen cease as the resistance calls them off.
September 1944, the Germans dissolve the Danish police force, deporting almost 2000 police officers to Concentration Camps. Denmark is now a country without any police. Crime flourishes in the city of Copenhagen. The Nazis form small but extremely violent Nazi police corps, the Hipo aka The Hilfspolizei, aiming to keep some order in the city. The Hipo Corps uses the main Police station as HQ as they terrorize Copenhagen. Soon they’re more feared and hated than even Gestapo.
The men in the Hipo Corps are Danes. They are all placed on the death lists of the resistance. Unlikely as it may seem, the Germans in the Gestapo are bound to certain limits in the use of violence and torture. The Danes serving the Nazis are not bound to the same restrictions and therefore torture and kill more randomly. As the resistance ambush and kill several patrolling Hipos, the Hipo remove the car doors to be able to exit the cars faster. Read more about the Hipo HERE
As the end of the war came closer, the fighting gets fierce with daily killings and bombings, as both sides let hatred run free. This was no longer a ‘Whipped Cream Frontier’ or teenagers rebelling. This was a pure killing spree in broad daylight. No one could feel safe anywhere. You could get shot by mistake by the Resistance or at random by the Nazi retaliation killing squads. As good fought evil, the Criminals took over. This is where my novel, The Informer, begins.
October 1944, Allied forces penetrate the German borders. Allied liberation brings some European countries close to anarchy as different parts of the resistance try to sieze power.
December 1944, Nazi-Germany launches the final offensive campaign on the Western frontier in the Ardennes. It lasts for a month, but fails. The first Danish prisoners return home from the German Concentration Camps.
February 1945, first German refugees, fleeing Soviet forces, arrives in Copenhagen. More than 250,000 follow during the next months. Nazi-Germany’s losing WW2, but who’s to liberate Denmark? Soviet or the British? And what will happen then? Allied Forces bomb several large German ships sailing refugees to Denmark, killing thousands. Germans evacuate concentration camps, forcing captives on death marches, killing hundreds of thousands. The Schalburg Corps are abolished, most members join the Hipo Corps, not wanting to go to the frontiers. Swedish Red Cross negotiates with the German leaders to have Scandinavians freed from Concentration Camps.
March 1945. The Gestapo HQ in Copenhagen bombed by the Brits, accidentally bombing a local school at the same time. The Gestapo establishes a new Copenhagen HQ at the old central police station also housing the Hipo Corps. First convoy of the White Busses rescue operation transport Scandinavian captives from Concentration Camps to freedom. About 15,000 prisoners were rescued by the White Busses before the end of the war, and 10,000 in the months after.
April 1945. Soviet forces reach the outskirts of Berlin.
April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler commits suicide inside the Führer Bunker.
May 5, 1945, German forces in Denmark surrender to the British. Denmark celebrates the Resistance as heroes. Danish Nazis, the collaborators and others detained by the Resistance. It’s time for the reckoning. Danish women having affairs with German soldiers are hunted down by angry mobs in most cities.
May 8 1945, Not minding the liberation of Denmark, Soviet forces bomb cities on the Danish island of Bornholm.
May 9 1945, Germany finally surrenders completely, ending WW2 in Europe. Soviet forces occupying the Danish island of Bornholm, staying there for a year. The Danish politicians responsible for the cooperation with occupying Germany return to power.
Summer 1945, the Danish Government reintroduces the death penalty for high treason and adopts retroactive laws. Although the Danish Government had urged Danes to join the German forces, those who did so were now prosecuted, not the politicians. 40,000 Danes prosecuted after the war, 13,500 convicted. 78 Danes were later sentenced to death for high treason, 46 of these were executed. As it went, the smaller fish got the worst punishment, the bigger got less, and some might have been too big for justice.
Some statistics: 102 Danish members of the Resistance executed during World War II, while around 600 Danes died in the Concentration Camps. About 2,000 Danes died fighting on the side of Nazi-Germany at the Eastern Frontier. Around 6,000 Danes deported to the Concentration Camps. The Resistance killed well over 400 Nazi-informers in the last two years of the war.